NRC Book Excerpts

fluoride book coverExcerpts from the 2006 book:

National Research Council of the National Academies

(Click here to read or buy) 

A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards

Our government's report is concerning in its scientific analysis of the harm and the implications.  You can read—and search—the entire book online at the National Academies Press site.

Pages 259-260 (book):  Glucose, diabetes and fluoride: real concerns

From Ch. 8.  Effects on the Endocrine System

Discussion (Other Endocrine Function)

"More than one mechanism for diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance exists in humans, and a variety of responses to fluoride are in keeping with variability among strains of experimental animals and among the human population. The conclusion from the available studies is that sufficient fluoride exposure appears to bring about increases in blood glucose or impaired glucose tolerance in some individuals and to increase the severity of some types of diabetes. In general, impaired glucose metabolism appears to be associated with serum or plasma fluoride concentrations of about 0.1 mg/L or greater in both animals and humans (Rigalli et al. 1990, 1995; Trivedi et al. 1993; de al Sota et al. 1997). In addition, diabetic individuals will often have higher than normal water intake, and consequently, will have higher than normal fluoride intake for a given concentration of fluoride in drinking water. An estimated 16-20 million people in the U.S. have diabetes mellitus (Brownlee et al. 2002; Buse et al. 2002; American Diabetes Association 2004; Chapter 2); therefore, any role of fluoride exposure in the development of impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes is potentially significant."

Page 193 (book):  Babies, fetal development and fluoride concern!

From Ch. 6.  Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Fluoride

Developmental Effects

"There is wide variation with some correlation between fluoride concentration in maternal serum and cord blood, indicating that fluoride readily crosses the placenta. In general, average cord-blood concentrations are approximately 60% of maternal-serum concentrations, with proportionally lesser amounts present as higher maternal-serum concentrations (Gupta et al. 1993; Malhotra et al. 1993; Shimonovitz et al. 1995). Therefore, potential toxicity to the developing embryo and fetus in the setting of high maternal ingestion of fluoride has been a concern evaluated in both animal and humans."

Page 292 (book):  Kidney patients, renal function and fluoride

From Ch. 9.  Effects on the Gastrointestinal, Renal, Hepatic, and Immune Systems

Patients with Renal Impairment

"Several investigators have shown that patients with impaired renal function, or on hemodialysis, tend to accumulate fluoride much more quickly than normal. Patients with renal osteodystrophy can have higher fluoride concentrations in their serum (see Table 9-3). Whether some bone changes in renal osteodystrophy can be attributed to excess bone fluoride accumulation alone, or in combination with other elements such as magnesium and aluminum, has not been clearly established (Erben et al. 1984; Huraib et al. 1993; Ng et al. 2004). Extreme caution should be used in patients on hemodialysis because failures of the dialysis equipment have occurred in the past, resulting in fluoride intoxication (Arnow et al. 1994)."

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Fluoride in Drinking Water:
A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (2006)