Effects of fluoridation and disinfection agent combinations on lead leaching from leaded-brass parts.

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This study concerns effects on water-borne lead from combinations of chlorine (CL) or chloramines (CA) with fluosilicic acid (FSA) or sodium fluoride (NaF). CL is known to corrode brass, releasing lead from plumbing devices. It is known that CA and CL in different ratios with ammonia (NH) mobilize copper from brass, which we have found also enhances elution of lead from leaded brass alloys. Phase I involved leaded-brass 1/4 in. elbows pre-conditioned in DI water and soaked in static solutions containing various combinations of CL, CA, FSA, NaF, and ammonium fluosilicate. In Phase II 20 leaded-brass alloy water meters were installed in pipe loops. After pre-conditioning the meters with 200 flushings with 1.0 ppm CL water, seven different solutions were pumped for a period of 6 weeks.